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What am I talking about? Naturally, about all of us familiar dillthat everyone would like to have on the table all year round. Alas, in practice everything turns out to be not quite that simple. On the market, some grannies begin to actively trade in dill at the end of May, and they have fluffy and fragrant dill - you can't take your eyes off!
At the same time, in many vegetable gardens, dill is still growing (and rarely, rarely, as if it was not sown at all), and later does not form the desired luxurious greenery, rapidly turning into color. Such dill can not be added either to a salad or to boiled potatoes - it is suitable only for salting.
What is the matter here? And the fact is that for all the unpretentiousness of this spice, there are several tricks, without which fluffy, delicate and fragrant dill cannot be obtained.
The thing is that to get lush and early greens of dill without greenhouses or a greenhouse on biofuel is indispensable. But this is not the only trick. High soil fertility is also important, regular watering, the degree of illumination and the choice of variety. Of course, the greenhouse is not intended for growing dill, but in early spring it can still be used only for obtaining greens and cold-resistant seedlings, and therefore it would be reasonable to allocate part of the area for dill.
Moreover, cucumbers, for example, they treat very well the neighborhood with dill (although many cannot stand it other aromatic herbs, therefore, they may well coexist for some time. By the way, it is greenhouse dill (we are talking about early spring) that grows more tender, while dill from open areas can be rougher if you do not keep it under a covering material.
Concerning use of biofuels, then it is very necessary for us when growing vegetables. Firstly, without such heating of the greenhouse (other heating methods are expensive and many cannot afford) it will be dangerous to plant heat-loving crops early in it. Secondly, it will not be possible to use the greenhouse to obtain an early spring harvest - the plants simply will not have time to grow, because they will have to be sown later. Thirdly, the new greenhouse soil still needs to be formed on the basis of something, because the old soil (at least its top layer) has to be removed due to the presence of pathogens of various kinds of diseases in it. It is easier to form a new soil based on a variety of organic matter - partly laid in the fall, partly added in the spring.
When laying biofuels, it should be borne in mind that the layer fresh manure must be at a sufficiently deep depth, otherwise the dill crop will be with nitrates, or even refuse to grow at all and turn yellow. It is clear that this is important not only for dill, but also for thermophilic crops later planted in the greenhouse.
The top layer of greenhouse ridges should be very fertile and neutral in terms of acidity - with insufficient nutrition, dill grows poorly, immediately becomes tough and goes into color.
As for soil moisture, dill is very demanding in this regard (especially in the first three weeks of development) - with a lack of moisture, its leaves become small, coarse, and thereby reduce the yield and product quality. Dill is also picky about the level of illumination, since it is very light-requiring - it grows and develops poorly in shaded areas, quickly stretches and lays down, and at the same time becomes less aromatic.
In addition, the degree of softness and fluffiness of dill greens depends on the variety - at the moment there are so-called strongly leafy and even bush varieties of dill on sale, which are bushy much more than traditional varieties (that is, Gribovsky and Lesnogorodsky). Moreover, such varieties later throw out the flower arrow (since they do not have such a pronounced reaction to lengthening daylight hours), which ensures a longer period of consumption of fresh herbs. In terms of obtaining greens, bush dill (varieties Buyan, Salut, Alligator, Richelieu, etc.) is more promising.
Shrub dill has a thicker and more powerful bush with a base of 5-6 closely spaced internodes (and not 1-2, as usual) and forms lateral shoots that grow from the sinuses. As a result, it is possible to collect greens from bush varieties for a longer period. First, the greens obtained by thinning are consumed. Then the leaves are cut off as they grow, starting from the lower tier and gradually moving to the leaves of the lateral shoots. And only with the beginning of flowering, the bush is cut off completely.
By the way, in order to save money (if you sow a lot of dill), you can breed a kind of bush dill yourself by crossing dill from purchased seeds of bush varieties with dill grown on your site. I personally did just that ten years ago. In reality, of course, the end result is not a real bush dill, but a cross between ordinary and bush dill. In my case, for example, dill came out with actively formed side shoots and 3-4 closely spaced internodes, but this is also not bad, since the savings on seeds are impressive. Of course, any reader will tell me to this that it would be wiser to do without crossing, collecting seeds from an elite bush dill. Alas, in the Urals, this number does not work, since bush dill form seeds later than usual - as a result, they simply do not have time to ripen.
In order to have on the table fragrant and rich in vitamins and essential oil dill greens from spring to autumn, you have to sow it many times during the season and in different variations. The very first crops are sown in a greenhouse or greenhouse. In this case, I, for example, sow part of the estimated areas with dry seeds, and part with germinated seeds.
Germination, in fact, allows you to speed up the harvest by about a couple of weeks, as it is carried out at home at a temperature of 20 ... To do this, around mid-April (a week before the expected sowing), you should wet the usual sawdust and spread them in a thin layer (about half a centimeter) in low containers. Then on a layer of sawdust spread the seeds and cover them with another layer of sawdust of the same thickness.
After that, the containers are placed in slightly opened plastic bags. After about a week, the seeds begin to hatch and white roots will appear. After that, they immediately start sowing, evenly scattering the dill seeds along with sawdust over the allotted area of the greenhouse, and then sprinkle the crops with a thin layer of soil.
After that, the ridges are actively watered and covered with a layer of thin covering material, laid directly on the soil. In addition, mini-greenhouses are installed in the greenhouse, covered with a film or thick covering material. And in open ground, dill is sown at several times - the first time - before winter, then several times during the spring and summer, from May to early August. If you grow seeds on the site yourself, then winter sowing usually not required, since there will be more than enough dill grown in the self-seeding area.
Of course, the self-seeding option will not suit everyone, since dill is sown at its own discretion - as a result, somewhere later it will have to be removed even at the germination stage, and if left, weed the ridges more carefully, because you will have to look out not only for the seedlings of the main crops, but also for dill. In addition, the scattered seeds will be destroyed if the ridges are dug up in the spring, which many gardeners do (for me this is no longer relevant, since I do not dig up the ridges, but only loosen them in the fall with a flat cutter).
By the way, you can sow seeds germinated in sawdust in open ground - this will allow you to get a harvest not only earlier, but also in a larger volume, since the percentage of germinated seeds will be higher. At an early stage, it is wiser to keep crops under the covering material, which will reduce the activity of irrigation and eliminate the necessary loosening of the soil. In addition, dill forms more delicate greens under the covering material.
Since the sowing season in our country does not differ in duration, and buying dill in winter (although it can be found in supermarkets without any problems at any time of the year) is not very good for health and wallet, you have to make stocks of dill for the winter.
The best thing is to freeze it in a special compartment of the freezer. To do this, the grass must be washed, dried (more convenient on a sheet folded in several layers) and finely chopped, then placed in bags and frozen. You cannot freeze raw grass (that is, not dried), as it will freeze, and then it will be very difficult to pour the required amount of spice from the bag. In winter, as needed, you take out such a bag of grass, take the required amount of greens from it (there are no problems here, since with proper preparation, the contents of the bag are not a solid monolith, but crumble perfectly) and immediately put it back into the freezer.
This frozen herb can be added not only to hot dishes (boiled, stewed, etc.), but also to salads. Repeated freezing of thawed greens is unacceptable, just as it is impossible to store thawed grass - it becomes watery, soft and loses most of its taste and aroma.
If the size of the freezer does not allow you to provide yourself with frozen dill for the entire autumn-winter-spring season, then you will have to resort to drying. Dill should be dried somewhere in the shade, in a draft. Then the dried shoots must first be cut and then ground in two stages: first in a meat grinder, and then on a coffee grinder. In this case, you will receive dill powder, which has long been offered by efficient companies under a variety of names - both as a spice and as a dietary supplement.
True, you need to keep in mind that grinding the grass is possible only if it is perfectly dried, otherwise the grass will be constantly pressed in a meat grinder and spoil a lot of your blood. Therefore, I keep dill for half a month at home in a cloth bag (in the dark) with the heating on, and only then start processing it. Theoretically, there is still a variant of salting dill, but, in my opinion, this is the most unfortunate way to preserve it, since the use of salted dill is limited - in fact, these are only hot dishes (mainly soups).
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
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Fisherman to fisherman
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Capitalism is not a fishing companion - N13, p. 23
Quocation of catfish on the Lower Volga - N19, p. 23 N20, p. 23
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Burbot from the cod family - N15, p. 22
The fish will endure everything - N13, p. 23
The variety is high-yielding, late ripening.
In the middle lane it is recommended for cultivation in greenhouses, in the southern regions it can be cultivated in the open field.
The plant is powerful, tall (above 1.8 m), indeterminate type, but not spreading, requires pinching and garters to the trellis. It is recommended to form this tomato into one or two stems.
The variety is unpretentious in cultivation, resistant to many diseases. Productivity - 4-5 kg per bush.
The fruits ripen in clusters, round-oval, small and medium-sized (60-110 g), leveled, in a state of full ripening, red-orange in color (there is a yellow-fruited form of the variety). The skin is smooth, dense, the pulp is rich red, juicy, fleshy, good sweet and sour taste.
The fruits are excellently transported, have a long shelf life. Recommended for fresh consumption, canning and processing.
The specific origin story is not entirely clear. This is a cuboid Atlant variety and was created by the Poisk breeding company. This plant was entered in the state register in 2007, it was allowed to grow throughout the territory of the Russian Federation. "Poisk" is responsible for the safety of the plant.
In stores, you can be offered a hybrid Atlant, created by the "Russian City". There is also a re-grading under this name, but it does not apply to either a variety or a hybrid.
Dill Alligator is sown on prepared beds immediately after the snow melts. In this case, the soil should not be frozen. Sowing is also possible in autumn, in November.
The bed should be in a sunny place, preferably without drafts. It is good if the place is raised - Alligator dill does not like waterlogging and stagnant water.
The seeds are prepared for sowing by soaking, changing the water every 12 hours and stirring them periodically. This preparatory event takes up to two days, then the seed is dried. Now it can be sown. The depth of the grooves is 2-3 cm, the distance between the rows is 20 cm. The sown seeds are sprinkled with earth and the garden is watered so that the surface is moist. When sowing in the fall, watering is excluded.
Dill grows well next to onions, garlic, or cabbage.
Useful properties of cabbage.
Cabbage occupies a large place in the human diet. In recent years, many new varieties have appeared with a delicate and unusual taste. The methods of cooking cabbage dishes are also changing. Its main types are white, red, colored, kohlrabi, broccoli, etc.
Cabbage is full of sugars, mainly glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, raffinose. It is rich in pectin, starch, fiber, proteins, salts of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, silver, nickel, zinc, molybdenum, silicon, lead, etc.
Cabbage is a storehouse of various organic acids and amino acids, vitamins C, B1, B 2 , B 4, B 6, B 9, PP, D, E, K, U. There are even high molecular weight alcohols, glycosides and other compounds, many of which kill intestinal bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, and other pathogens. Thanks to this, cabbage is the most important medicinal "drug" for many diseases. It is useful for atherosclerosis, cholelithiasis, obesity, gastritis with low acidity, heart disease, kidney disease, metabolic disorders. Promotes the excretion of salts of heavy metals, cholesterol, excess fluid from the body. A compress of white cabbage leaves on the knee joint, lower back with sciatica, arthritis relieves pain, facilitates movement and improves overall well-being. Pigment substances of red cabbage inhibit the development of leukemia, remove radionuclides from the body, and phytoncides prevent tubercle bacillus from developing. Silicon contained in cauliflower helps to strengthen bones, maintains the elasticity of blood vessels, and has a beneficial effect on teeth, hair and skin. Finally, broccoli indole inhibits the growth of malignant cells.
Growing cabbage .
All types of cabbage are deciduous vegetables, unpretentious to grow.
The agricultural technique for growing all types of cabbage is the same. It is a light-, moisture-loving cross-pollinated cold-resistant plant. The growing season of different species and varieties is not the same. The area that will be used for planting cabbage is dug deeply since autumn, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied (20-40 g of ammonium nitrate, 30-40 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium chloride per square meter). In the spring it is not dug up, only slightly loosened with a rake or a hand cultivator. Cabbage loves dense soil.
Before sowing, cabbage seeds are subjected to thermal disinfection, warmed up - immersed in water heated to 50 ° C for 20 minutes. After that, they are cooled by immersing them in cold water for 3 minutes.
Cabbage needs nitrogen at the beginning of the growing season, and during the setting of heads of cabbage - in phosphorus and potassium (10 g per bucket per square meter).
Cabbage requires protection from diseases and pests. And most often the gardeners themselves are to blame for the diseases of cabbage, not compacting, but loosening the soil on plantings. Sometimes seedlings are planted in acidified soil, crop rotation and crop compatibility are not observed (cabbage does not get along with strawberries, tomatoes, beans).
The question often arises: is it necessary to break off the leaves of the cabbage? The answer is: it is necessary to remove diseased and yellow leaves. In other cases, the leaves are removed with strong foliage, and no more than two per plant per week, so as not to upset the balance between the aerial part and the root system of the head of cabbage.
For storage, cabbage of late varieties is laid, with dense heads of cabbage and green leaves, which protect it from fungal infection. The optimal mode is storage with stumps and green leaves in a suspended state, when the heads of cabbage do not touch at a temperature close to zero (± 1 ° С). When stored on racks, in boxes, each head of cabbage should be wrapped in paper, which will slow down the spread of putrefactive bacteria. It should be checked periodically. In this case, do not remove the dried lower leaves. But if the sheet becomes wet, it must be removed. When mucus appears, the head of cabbage is cleaned and the healthy part of the head is used immediately.
Growing white cabbage.
In our conditions, all its varieties are widespread - from early to late ripening. They are planted in the ground with seedlings: early varieties - in late April, mid-season and mid-late - in early May, late - in tenths of May. Planting is done according to the scheme from 50 x 50 cm (early) to 70 x 70 cm (late).
When planting seedlings in well-moistened holes, the soil around the plants must be compacted. During the growing season, cabbage consumes a large amount of water, especially it is necessary to monitor soil moisture during the period of leaf growth and head formation. It is noticed that when planting seedlings, willy-nilly, the lower part of the main root is removed, and therefore its root system is located superficially in the soil. Cabbage is a moisture-loving plant, so it should be watered often and abundantly. Seed cabbage sown on the beds does not need such moisture. Conclude: either the preservation of the taproot of the plant, including sowing with seeds, or frequent and abundant watering of the plantings.
Periodically, the soil needs to be loosened, only as close to the plants as possible. During the season, two hilling are carried out: the first - 20 days after planting, the second - 8-10 days after the first.
Feed the cabbage three to four times. It needs nitrogen, especially at the initial stage of foliage and root growth. And in the phase of the formation of a head of cabbage, fertilizing with phosphorus and potassium is necessary. Cabbage should be fed once or twice with organic fertilizers (mullein solution, bird droppings).
It is good to feed (powder) the plants with wood ash (a glass per square meter), which serves not only as a fertilizer, but also as a prophylaxis against aphids and slugs. The last time for feeding is July - early August, if in the later growing season the plants do not signal a "hunger strike" by their appearance.
The greatest growth of heads of cabbage occurs in late autumn, so you should not rush to harvest it. But often at this time there are frosts, so you need to show wisdom: be careful, observe the processes taking place in nature, listen to forecasts of weather forecasters. White cabbage painlessly transfers one-time frosts to the root. Repeated exposure of cabbage to low temperatures is undesirable. If this happened, before you put the frozen heads of cabbage for storage (with the core not frozen), they must be kept at a temperature slightly above zero for three days, then put into a room for thawing at 10-15 ° C. Such cabbage can be stored for a short time, its taste and properties are restored.
Growing red cabbage.
Differs from white-headed color of leaves and heads of cabbage.
Red cabbage helps to weaken the harmful effects of radiation, prevents the development of leukemia, tubercle bacillus, is more cold-resistant. The duration of its growth is somewhat shorter (160 days) than that of the late white cabbage. Therefore, it is planted in late May - early June.
Its head is a fleshy overgrown inflorescence. It is poorly stored, therefore, for constant consumption, it is sown at several times with an interval of 10-15 days.
She is capricious in cultivation. Does not tolerate picks. Demanding on the temperature regime - before the emergence of shoots, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of 20 ° C, after shoots - during the day about 10 ° C, at night - 7 ° C, a decade after the emergence of shoots - 18-20 ° C and 10-12 ° C, respectively. She needs a moist and warm soil, sufficiently illuminated, with a high content of humus and nutrients. It needs frequent and regular watering throughout the growth period. Water it both under the root and by sprinkling.
Feed the cauliflower when the head begins to appear. The first time you need to feed with urea or other nitrogen fertilizer, and the second time - with a complex fertilizer. Only a strong plant with large leaves forms large and dense heads. But excess nitrogen fertilization leads to the development of powerful leaves and small fruit heads. Sensitive to the lack of boron and molybdenum. Chlorine intolerant.
To keep the heads fresh and white, they need to be covered from the hot sun with broken leaves.
The heads are cut off in a dense state with the cessation of their growth. They are eaten fresh, fried, stewed, canned, frozen. It is used in dietary nutrition, for gastrointestinal diseases.
Growing kohlrabi cabbage.
It is a spherical stem fruit. Loves hot and dry summers. The growing season is 2 months.
Unlike other types of cabbage, it is very sensitive to sharp and significant temperature fluctuations. She gives two or three harvests.
Fresh kohlrabi contains 50-60 mg of vitamin C per 100 g of the fruit, and in young leaves it is several times more than in the stem. There is a lot of calcium, provitamin A, and iron is the most of the minerals. Young and medium-sized stems taste great: cheese - nutty with a herring flavor, boiled - turnip and cabbage flavor.
Sow kohlrabi finely. They remove it gradually, preventing the heads of cabbage from becoming lumber. Usually it is used as a compactor with late-ripening cabbage varieties, tomatoes, cucumbers and as a subsequent crop.
Growing broccoli cabbage.
Broccoli contains most of the essential acids (at the beef level) of certain substances - at the level of chicken egg protein ascorbic acid - two times more than cauliflower and cabbage carotene - more than spinach, asparagus. The fruits of broccoli contain salts of potassium, magnesium, vitamins B 1, B 2 , RR, E. Useful for heart patients and patients with disorders of the nervous system. Promotes the elimination of salts of heavy metals from the body, increases the body's resistance to radiation. Normalizes blood cholesterol levels. It contains fewer substances that impart bitterness, negatively affecting the functioning of the liver.
Externally, broccoli differs from cauliflower in the structure of the head. The stem of this cabbage variety is fleshy, at the end of its loose head. During the growing season, the plant forms side shoots, on which small heads grow. It comes in green, purple and white. Purple and white varieties are frost-resistant, high-yielding, ripen later than collard, but earlier than cabbage. The growing season is up to 80 days. It is better to sow it at different times in order to constantly use it for food. First, the main head is cut off with a 15 cm part of the fleshy stem, and then, until frost, the side ones. They are grown both as seedlings and seeds directly into the soil.
Growing Brussels sprouts.
This is the most valuable vegetable crop with good taste, especially when it is stuck in frost. It is useful for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes. Rich in proteins, potassium, sodium.
She loves moisture and fertile soil, which must be dense. Otherwise, the heads of cabbage may be loose and will have to be removed. Planting care is the same as for white cabbage. The peculiarity of care is the need for timely, at the stage of compaction of the heads of cabbage, pinching the apical bud to obtain the best quality harvest.
Brussels sprouts are hardy. The growing season is 140-150 days for sowing with seeds and 105-110 for seedlings.
Alligator dill has a number of advantages, among which high yield, low stemming rate and fragrant aroma can be noted. Of the minuses, it can be noted mediocre resistance to diseases and seed germination, which is slightly above average.
The variety is suitable for growing on personal subsidiary plots and small farms, while regular monitoring of the condition and systematic preventive measures are important. The variety is of little use for growing on an industrial scale.